So this happened again, and I've done some more troubleshooting. The network is NOT
down. The issue is that DNS is not working. I can ping IP addresses e.g. 188.8.131.52. However, nslookup www.apple.com 184.108.40.206
results in DNS request timed out.
For ICMP, runnning wireshark in both VM and host. In the VM the ICMP packets show up, and in MacOS host wireshark the ICMP packets show up.
For DNS, outgoing nslookup DNS standard query packets are logged in VM wireshark, but no DNS standard query response packets. The wireshark on MacOS host does not see any of this DNS packet traffic. However, if I suspend the VM, quit and restart parallels, and resume the VM, everything works as expected...both VM and MacOS host wireshark see all DNS query and response traffic.
So MacOS sleep/wake cycle appears to be causing some kind of issue with parallels virtual networks and DNS.
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